Propionate utilisation by the liver in spontaneously ketotic dairy cows was investigated by determining blood glucose levels after an intravenous sodium propionate load ( mmol kg-1). In addition, blood ketone body concentrations were measured after propionate loading. Cows were divided into three groups (control, mildly ketotic and severely ketotic) by their blood acetoacetate concentrations. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly after sodium propionate injection in all three groups (P less than ). The maximum glucose concentration occurred earlier in the control group than in the ketotic groups. Changes in glucose concentrations following propionate loading of control and ketotic cows differed significantly at 20 minutes and beyond. Differences in the change in glucose concentration between mildly ketotic and severely ketotic cows were not significant. Acetoacetate concentration was significantly decreased at five minutes and beyond after the injection in ketotic cows, whereas beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration decreased more slowly. A decrease in beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significant at 40 minutes and beyond in the severely ketotic group and at 10 minutes and beyond in the mildly ketotic group after loading.
The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".   Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.  The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.  Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.