In rabbits, fetal weight reduction and cleft palate were observed at a fluticasone propionate dose approximately times the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 4 mcg/kg/day). However, no teratogenic effects were reported at fluticasone propionate doses up to approximately 20 times the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose up to 300 mcg/kg/day). No fluticasone propionate was detected in the plasma in this study, consistent with the established low bioavailability following oral administration [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ].
Testosterone propionate is a commonly manufactured injectable form of the primary male androgen added propionate ester will slow the rate in which testosterone is released from the injection site, but only for a few days. Testosterone propionate is, therefore, comparatively much faster-acting than other testosterone esters such as cypionate or enanthate, and requires a much more frequent dosing schedule. By most accounts testosterone propionate is an older and cruder form of injectable testosterone, made obsolete by the slower-acting and more comfortable esters that were developed subsequent to it. Still, those who are not bothered by the frequent injection schedule find testosterone propionate every bit as acceptable. As an injectable testosterone, it is a powerful mass-building drug, capable of producing rapid gains in both muscle size and strength. Testosterone propionate is a modified form of testosterone, where a carboxylic acid ester (propionic acid) has been attached to the 17-beta hydroxyl group. The half-life of testosterone propionate is approximately two days after injection.
Testosterone is readily aromatized in the body to estradiol (estrogen). The aromatase (estrogen synthetase) enzyme is responsible for this metabolism of testosterone. Elevated estrogen levels can cause side effects such as increased water retention, body fat gain, and gynecomastia. Elevated levels of testosterone are likely to produce androgenic side effects including oily skin, acne, and body/facial hair growth. Men with a genetic predisposition for hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) may notice accelerated male pattern balding.
Testosterone propionate is often regarded as a painful injection. This is due to the very short carbon chain of the propionic acid ester, which can be irritating to tissues at the site of injection.
Many sensitive individuals choose to stay away from this steroid completely, their bodies reacting with a pronounced soreness and low-grade fever that may last for a few days after each injection.
The usual dosage among male athletes is in the range of 50-100 mg per injection, which is given every second or third day. Similar to other esters of testosterone, testosterone propionate is commonly used at a weekly cumulative dosage between 200 mg to 400 mg. This level is sufficient for most users to notice exceptional gains in muscle size and strength.
In the 12-month, open-label, active-controlled, long-term safety trial in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older, 404 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis were treated with DYMISTA 1 spray per nostril twice daily and 207 patients were treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril once daily. Overall, adverse reactions were 47% in the DYMISTA treatment group and 44% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group. The most frequently reported adverse reactions ( ≥ 2%) with DYMISTA were headache, pyrexia, cough, nasal congestion, rhinitis, dysgeusia, viral infection, upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, pain, diarrhea, and epistaxis. In the DYMISTA treatment group, 7 patients (2%) had mild epistaxis and 1 patient ( < 1%) had moderate epistaxis. In the fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group 1 patient ( < 1%) had mild epistaxis. No patients had reports of severe epistaxis. Focused nasal examinations were performed and no nasal ulcerations or septal perforations were observed. Eleven of 404 patients (3%) treated with DYMISTA and 6 of 207 patients (3%) treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray discontinued from the trial due to adverse events.